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【科技日報】銀河系首次觀測到重元素組成恒星

文章來源:科技日報 陳超   發布時間:2019-05-10  【字號:     】  

  中國國家天文臺、日本國立天文臺組成的聯合研究小組,在銀河系中發現了一顆含有較多重元素的特殊恒星“J1124+4535”,顯示出銀河系在誕生和成長過程中曾與小星系合體的痕跡。

  這顆老年恒星是迄今為止首次發現的具有如此多重元素特征的恒星,而相似的恒星在圍繞銀河系附近的矮星系中多有發現。研究團隊據此認為,此次發現的恒星是在一個矮星系中誕生的,該矮星系與銀河系碰撞合體后成為銀河系一員。被銀河系合并的矮星系已完全喪失形狀,其原有恒星散落在銀河系中,但恒星的軌道運動及化學構成(元素組成)仍維持合并之前的狀態。此次觀測結果證明,像銀河系這樣的較大星系是經過多次與小星系的撞擊、合體,逐漸成長為目前這樣的星系的。

  人類居住的銀河系是螺旋狀的圓盤結構、恒星稀疏存在的“暈輪結構”。大多數恒星誕生于銀河系形成過程的初期,有些是由氣體在銀河系中集聚誕生;有些是在矮星系中誕生,之后被銀河系吸收過來。這一過程已被計算機模擬預測。

  自2014年開始,中日聯合研究小組利用中國的郭守敬望遠鏡(LAMOST,大天區面積多目標光纖光譜天文望遠鏡)甄選出金屬元素含量較少的恒星,日本昴望遠鏡利用搭載的高色散光譜儀(HDS)對選擇的恒星進行詳細觀測。截至目前,已對400多個天體進行了詳細的元素組成測定。此次,他們發現“J1124+4535”天體具有突出特征,即該恒星鎂、鐵比重較低,重于鐵的重元素相對較多。這是在銀河系首次觀測到的由極端元素組成的恒星。而與其相似的恒星在銀河系周圍的矮星系中已發現數例,明確顯示該恒星誕生于矮星系,之后被銀河系吸收。

  研究成果近期發表在《自然·天文學》網絡版。

  (原載于《科技日報》 2019-05-10 02版)




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